Tipos de cáncer

Página web de la Sociedad Americana del Cáncer. Tratamientos y efectos secundarios. www.cancer.org/treatment/treatments-and-side-effects.html. Consultado el 11 de noviembre de 2019.Doroshow JH. Abordaje del paciente con cáncer. En: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Medicina Goldman-Cecil. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:cap 169.Sitio web del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer. Types of cancer treatment. www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/types. Consultado el 11 de noviembre de 2019.

Versión en inglés revisada por: Todd Gersten, MD, Hematología/Oncología, Florida Cancer Specialists & Research Institute, Wellington, FL. Revisión proporcionada por VeriMed Healthcare Network. También revisado por David Zieve, MD, MHA, Director Médico, Brenda Conaway, Directora Editorial, y el equipo editorial de A.D.A.M. Traducción y localización realizada por: DrTango, Inc.

How long does an immunotherapy treatment last?

“There are clinical studies that define the maximum treatment time as two years.

How can cancer be treated?

If you have cancer, your doctor will recommend one or more ways to treat the disease. The most common treatments are surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Newer options include targeted therapy, immunotherapy and laser hormone therapy among others.

How is a malignant tumor removed?

Chemotherapy is considered a systemic treatment because the drugs pass throughout the body and can kill cancer cells that have spread (metastasized) to parts of the body far from the original (primary) tumor.

Types of medical treatment

If the first cohort does not have severe side effects, then a new cohort receives a higher dose of the same medicine. The dose increases with each new cohort, until doctors find the best dose for subsequent studies. With each dose increase, doctors test each patient to see if they are responding to treatment.

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Phase III trials can include hundreds to thousands of patients across the country or around the world. Each patient enrolled in a Phase III clinical trial has a chance of being in one of the following groups:

A computer decides which patients are in the control group and which are in the study group. Patients have a chance of being in either group. The patient and the physician do not decide. It is random and is due to chance alone. This helps to avoid bias in the clinical trial (Bias occurs when human choices affect the results of a study).

In single-blind studies, patients do not know whether or not they are in the control group or the study group, but the physician does. In double-blind studies, neither patients nor physicians know which patients are in which group. (In the case of an emergency, physicians can find this information in the study file).

How many and what are the types of information processing that exist to date?

– Manual processing: Use made directly by people. We often use simple tools (pencil, abacus…). – Automatic processing: is carried out with computers, automatic machines that process information following the instructions of a program.

How do you know if the immunotherapy treatment is working?

At present, the only way to prove that immunotherapy is being effective is to observe a reduction in tumor volume. An effect that, although undoubtedly beneficial, can take months.

Which cancers are treated with immunotherapy?

Since then, clinical benefit has been demonstrated in a variety of tumors such as head and neck cancer, lung cancer, bladder cancer, kidney cancer, breast cancer, melanoma and other skin cancers, liver cancer, lymphomas, leukemias, and clinical trials are currently underway for the remaining tumors.

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Treatment

The following information describes traditional or standard chemotherapy.  There are also other medications that are used to treat cancer in different ways, including targeted therapy, hormonal therapy, and immunotherapy.

If your doctor recommends chemotherapy as an option to treat your cancer, it is important to understand the goals of treatment when making decisions. The three main goals of chemotherapy as a cancer treatment are:

Most physicians avoid using the word “cure” unless they are referring to a possible or intended outcome of treatment. Therefore, when giving a treatment that might offer a chance of curing a person’s cancer, the doctor may describe it as a treatment with curative intent.

In many cases, the cancer does not disappear completely, but is controlled and treated as a chronic disease, similar to heart disease or diabetes. In other cases, the cancer may go away for a while, but is likely to return.

How long do the side effects of immunotherapy last?

Many side effects will go away when treatment ends, but some effects may last beyond the treatment period and others may occur months or years later. Your health care team can help you manage long-term side effects.

When a tumor is malignant, can it be operated on?

Your doctor can perform a type of cancer surgery to remove all or part of a tumor, which allows it to be studied under a microscope to determine if the tumor is cancerous (malignant) or non-cancerous (benign).

What is the most difficult cancer to cure?

Pancreatic cancer is usually detected late, does not respond well to treatment and begins to metastasize very early.

Cancer treatment

When your immune system detects something harmful, it produces antibodies. Antibodies are proteins that fight infection by binding to antigens, which are molecules that initiate the immune response in your body.

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Many checkpoint inhibitors are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for specific types of cancer. There are also many immune checkpoints that are used to treat tumors anywhere in the body by targeting specific genetic changes. These are called “tumor agnostic treatments”.

The side effects of monoclonal antibody therapy depend on the purpose of the drug. For example, the side effects of monoclonal antibodies used for targeted therapy are different from those used for immunotherapy. Side effects of immune checkpoint inhibitors may include side effects similar to those of an allergic reaction.

By Rachel Robison

Rachel Robison is a blogger who collects information on court filings and notices.