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This article discusses the stages in which there has been a development in the Colombian armed conflict from a theoretical perspective that establishes that a conflict has its own life cycle, where it reaches a peak and even violent, then decreases, disappears and in some cases reappears, according to the approach by José M. Tortosa, El largo camino. From violence to peace. The conflict in Colombia has been developed in three stages: the initial, intermediate and final, with a few challenges inherent in each one of them. However, the final stage known as the post-conflict situations will be the longest, costly and that will involve the largest number of challenges.
Once again in Colombia a new attempt to achieve peace is being made, with the beginning of the peace process between the FARC-EP and the Colombian government headed by President Juan Manuel Santos. Dialogues that have gradually advanced in the discussion of six points in the agenda that was agreed to be discussed in Havana-Cuba.
In order to analyze these stages in detail, the article is divided into four sections. The first section presents the conceptual theoretical framework of thestadium, which defines four basic concepts: armed conflict, transitional justice, post-conflict and violence; it also presents the theoretical approaches to each of the stages of the conflict.
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The purpose of this article is to present the results of a research that sought to establish a baseline that would allow us to know from the perspective of the students what were their appreciations about the coexistence manual, the development and implementation of the peace chair and conflict mediation within the educational institutions with the purpose of developing a stable and lasting peace building, essentially understood as a process guided by the State that seeks to promote good practices in the classroom, quality teacher training and organizational structures that favor the learning of citizenship in the educational context. The research is framed under the qualitative paradigm. Semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted with students in grades 9, 10 and 11, from different educational institutions. The results show the perception of the students in the evaluated dimensions, being relevant: that they only use the coexistence manual in an instrumental way, and not as a source of formation; the lack of knowledge of the contents of the Peace Lecture and its importance to contribute to the construction of a culture of peace and the use by the students of a traditional vertical authority to resolve conflicts.
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This article pursues two objectives. On the one hand, to provide some elements that contribute to the characterization of the geographies of war produced in the framework of the Colombian armed conflict. On the other hand, to propose ideas that show the transformative potential of the peace negotiations with the FARC-EP and ELN insurgencies to deconstruct these geographies of war and move towards the construction of geographies of peace.
This paper has two aims. On one side, to give some elements to charaterize the war geographies produced in the Colombian armed conflict. On the other hand, to propose ideas to indicate that the peace talks between Colombian Government and FARC-EP and ELN have transformative potentiality to bring down those war geographies and to move on toward setting up peace geographies.
Thus, these are not empty or dead spaces. On the contrary, they are living territories that move according to the power plots and the horizons of meaning pursued by the diversity of social actors. For this reason, when we speak of territorial transformations, we are referring to the movements of society in the territories. Renewed interactions between natural complexes and human orders. Changes in geographical inequalities. The emergence of new forms of work and their territorial division, among other elements that define the process of spatial production.
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An active protagonist of Mexico’s cultural life in the 20th century, he was director of magazines -such as Taller, Plural or Vuelta, in which the intellectual program of the generation of the Contemporaries was carried out: that Mexican culture should be contemporary with the culture of the world- and animator of cultural encounters where Mexico became an interlocutor of Eastern and Western thought. He was a member of El Colegio Nacional and was part of the Mexican Foreign Service, where, in an act of intellectual fortitude, he resigned from the post of Mexican ambassador to India in protest against the massacre of October 2, 1968.
Outside the library environment, his closeness to language and fiction is fostered by the presence of his aunt Amalia Paz, a literate woman, translator and enthusiast of nineteenth-century poetry. From her he listened avidly to the fantastic stories that stimulated his taste for literature; at the same time, it was she who brought him closer to the verses of some modernist Mexican poets, such as Manuel Gutiérrez Nájera (1859-1895).